# Introduction to Wave Description

The main characteristics of a wave are as follows:

- Crests are the high points.
- Troughs are the low points.
- Equilibrium position is the dashed line in the figure which represents the midpoint of the vibration.
- Wavelength (λ) is the distance between any successive identical parts of the wave.

For example the distance from one crest to the next crest.
- Amplitude is the distance from the midpoint to the crest (or trough) of the wave.

Basically, amplitude represents maximum displacement from equilibrium.
- Frequency (f) is the number of up-and-down vibrations an object makes in a given time (usually in one second).

A complete one up-and-down cycle is one vibration.
- Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz).
- A frequency of 1 Hz is a vibration that occurs once every second.
- Sound has a frequency of a few 100 or 1000 Hz.
- Radio waves have frequencies of a few million Hz (MHz). Like radio stations.
- Cell phones operate at few billon Hz (GHz).

- Period is the time for one complete vibration.
- Frequency (vibrations per second) and Period (seconds per vibration) are reciprocals.

Frequency = 1 / Period ⇒ Period = 1 / Frequency

*f* = 1 / *T* ⇒ *T* = 1 / *f*

### Exercises

### Exercise-1

*Exercise-1 on Waves *

Check your answers here:
*Solution to Exercise-1 on Waves *

### Exercise-2

*Exercise-2 on Waves *

Check your answers here:
*Solution to Exercise-2 on Waves *

### Exercise-3

*Exercise-3 on Waves *

Check your answers here:
*Solution to Exercise-3 on Waves *

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Date of last modification: 2024